Applied Sciences

Starting from March 28, 2020 our journals launched a series of special calls for papers related to coronavirus disease.

The collection includes contributions published in regular issues, as well as articles currently in Press, awaiting publication in the upcoming Journals issues. All articles, including Articles in Press, have undergone the peer review process.

All these articles are freely accessible.

(links updated on April 13, 2021)

The following list covers published & In Press articles related to Covid-19 across Applied Sciences, including Architecture, Science of Territory, Landscape Design and Urban Planning.

Aestimum Journal

Short-Term City Dynamics: effects and Proposals before the Covid-19 Pandemic

Maria Cerreta, Fernanda Della Mura, Laura Lieto, Giuliano Poli, University of Naples Federico II, Italy

Sharing platforms such as Airbnb changed urban balances and triggered processes of transformation of the historic city both from a structural, economic, and social point of view before Covid-19 Pandemic. Airbnb influences the production of urban space, not only through physical impacts but also through the tendency to mystify places, appealing to authenticity and experiential tourism. New images of reality, mediated by the platform, constitute the symbolic production of the tourist palatability of the city, which is intertwined with new uses and the exasperation of the consumption of a part of the cultural heritage. In this context, the research aims to structure a hybrid methodological approach that combines investigation and assessment for identifying and understanding the impacts of touristification and over-tourism on the urban dimension and develop possible intervention strategies consistent with the Circular Economy perspective, able to activate virtuous processes of regeneration. Naples, in the South of Italy, is the case study, a context for reflection and experimentation.

Accepted: 2020-09-15 | Published Online: 2020-09-30| DOI: 10.13128/aestim-9428 | full text

Bio based and applied economics Journal

Italian Farms During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Main Problems and Future Perspectives: A direct analysis through the Italian FADN

Cesaro, L., Giampaolo, A., Giarè, F., Sardone, R., Scadera, A., Viganò, L. Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Italy

The rapid spread of the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy, in the period February-May 2020, triggered a large-scale crisis, causing an immediate slowdown in production and consequently a sharp contraction in domestic demand and trade. Agriculture, together with numerous downstream activities in the sector, was immediately included among those defined as “essential”; however, the sector has faced numerous difficulties, as showed by the reduction of the added value during the first quarter of 2020 (-1.9% respect to the previous quarter), which were more or less serious depending on the technical-production system, the marketing channels utilized, the final markets (domestic or foreign), the degree of dependence on external production factors, especially labour, and areas where farms are located.
The evolutionary framework of the coming months, still uncertain, and the need to plan the expected responses in the political arena have made it appropriate to launch a fact-finding Survey that would allow a better understanding of the specific situation of the Italian agricultural sector and the check of the solutions adopted by farms to cope with it. For this purpose, a direct Survey was carried out, aimed at collecting information from the Italian farms of the FADN sample.

Published Online: 2020-08-07 |DOI: 10.13128/bae-9552 | full text

Bio based and applied economics Journal

Agritourism in crisis during COVID-19: Italian farms’ resilience and entrepreneurial strategies to face the impacts of the pandemic

Alessandro Buonaccorsi, University of Pisa, Italy

Over the past two decades, rural tourism has become one of the most dynamic and fastest growing economic sectors in Italy. The importance of this sector as a driver for job creation and the promotion of local economic development, culture and products is reflected in several of the Sustainable Development Goals that set forth tourism-specific targets. COVID-19 has triggered an unprecedented global crisis. Coordinated policy responses are needed to support agritourism and the livelihoods and working conditions of about 100,000 agricultural workers. Farms are asking for additional measures to guarantee the survival of agritourism in the medium and long terms. The speed and scope of the pandemic crisis underscore the need for the agritourism sector to become more resilient. Rural tourism could be a much safer or more manageable form of tourism.

Published Online: 2020-09-29 |DOI: 10.13128/bae-9554 | full text

Bollettino della Società Geografica Italiana

How COVID-19 Lockdown Impacted on Mobility and Environmental data

C. Badii, P. Bellini, S. Bilotta, D. Bologna, D. Cenni, A. Difino, A. Ipsaro Palesi, N. Mitolo, P. Nesi, G. Pantaleo, I. Paoli, M. Paolucci, M. Soderi, University of Florence, Italy

According to the COVID-19 lockdown and successive reopening a number of facts can be analysed. The main effects have been detected on: mobility and environment, and specifically on traffic, environmental data and parking. The mobility reduction has been assessed to be quite coherent with respect to what has been described by Google Global mobility report. On the other hand, in this paper a number of additional aspects have been put in evidence providing detailed aspects on mobility and parking that allowed us to better analyze the impact of the reopening on an eventual revamping of the infection, also taking into account of the Rt index. To this end, the collected data from the field have been compared from those of Google and some considerations with respect to the Imperial college Report 20 have been derived. For the pollutant aspects, a relevant reduction on most of them has been measured and rationales are reported. The solution has exploited the Snap4City IOT smart city infrastructure and data collector and Dashboard in place in Tuscany

Accepted: 2020-06-03 | Published Online: 2020-06-26 | DOI: 10.13128//bsgi.v2i2.932 | full text

Bollettino della Società Geografica Italiana

COVID-19 pandemic and the Sustainable Development Goals. Strategies to Spanish mass tourist destinations restructure

A. Gabarda-Mallorquí, R.M. Fraguell, Department of Geography, University of Girona, Spain

The recent COVID-19 pandemic has put the mass tourism sector in Spain in check. The measures to contain the spread of the virus have led to the loss of millions of euros and thousands of jobs in the sector. There are three factors regarding mass tourism management that make the sector even more fragile, jeopardizing its recovery once the pandemic is under control: currently, tourist destinations cannot yet guarantee physical distance, their work structure is not inclusive, and there are not enough multi-sector global alliances. These three circumstances do not allow the sector to be more resilient and able to face future outbreaks. The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals are, today more than ever, essential for the adaptation of the sector to new post-COVID-19 phases. Thus, with a strategy based on objectives 3, 8 and 17, the sector will move towards healthier, more inclusive and more cooperative tourist destinations, being able to face new outbreaks and even future health crises.

Accepted: 2020-07-18 | Published Online: 2020-08-03 | DOI: 10.13128//bsgi.v2i2.940 | full text

Cambio Journal

Super-luoghi, non tempo e non ritorno: per un negazionismo del vissuto

Emanuela Bossa, Italy

We live in a fragmented, suspended sociality, which has lost all its aspect of sharing and participation, and we have therefore set up social chains, but also social chains because digital tools have been the only instrument that allows us to regain possession of the borders that had been physically closed; and so we have learned to attend religious services in streaming or on TV, to follow or hold lessons remotely, to work remotely, to meet on digital platforms and in videoconferences, to shop online, to think about how to plan almost endless days and sometimes in complete solitude.

Received: 2020-08-25| Published Online: 2020-10-06 | DOI: 10.13128/cambio-9625 | full text

Cambio Journal

Il virus, grande urbanista!

Stefano Fera, Italy

While there are many theories, more or less official, unofficial, or conspiracy theories, on the origin of the pandemic – a zoonosis from a bat or pangolin; engineered in a laboratory and spread accidentally or deliberately, etc. – we all agree on one thing: we are experiencing an epoch-making event. – we all agree on one thing: we are experiencing an epoch-making event. This definition has now become commonplace, but it is undeniable that we are all witnessing something never seen before in human history. This is not because the epidemics of the past, even if they were more virulent and lethal, did not travel at the speed of this one, but above all because they were not shared in real time by the whole world, through a tool such as the internet, which, whether we like it or not, is now indispensable

Received: 2020-05-13 | Published Online: 2020-05-18 | DOI: 10.13128/cambio-8895 | full text

Cambio Journal

Vulnerabilità e senso del limite: per una nuova modernità

Franco Crespi, Università degli Studi di Perugia, Italy

Already in the last century there were many signs that the first triumphant phase of modernity, marked by Enlightenment rationalism, positivist scientism and the idea of progress, had come to an end. The two world wars, the economic crisis of 1929, the end of the senseless Nazi utopia, the Shoa, the threat of the atomic bomb, the end of the Soviet communist system, the perception of the first environmental imbalances, had all contributed in different ways to eliminating faith in the unidirectional and progressive sense of history, to making faith in science much more uncertain, to calling into question the capacity to control the economy and technology, and so on. The disenchantment Weber spoke of no longer concerned only the old sacred traditions, but the entire horizon on which early modernity had been nourished.

Received: 2020-04-24 | Published Online: 2020-04-27 | DOI: 10.13128/cambio-8580 | full text

Contesti Journal

Il diritto alla città della cura. La condizione anziana in tempi di pandemia

Elena Dorato, Dipartimento di Architettura, Università di Ferrara, Italy
Maria Giulia Bernardini, Dipartimento di Giurisprudenza, Università di Ferrara, Italy

Throughout this contribution, an urban planner and a philosopher of law wonder about the meaning assumed today by the expression “city of care” and its potential for the elderly population. Moving from a critical perspective, the Authors introduce an interdisciplinary dialogue that is the first step to an urban vision aimed at recognizing the subjectivity and rights of older people, thus overcoming the established logic where the elderly person is precluded access to the public dimension of contemporary urban living. Starting from the assumption that it is fundamental not only to recognize the right of older people to accessibility to the public sphere, but also their full ownership of the “right to the city”, the contribution moves from the tragic effects of the global health emergency to affirm the need for a radical change that is a cultural change, even before a health-care and an urban one.

Keywords: Covid-19, right to the city, elderly people, public space, social health

Accepted: January 2021 | Published Online:  January 2021  DOI: 10.13128/contest-12263 | full text

Contesti Journal

Retoriche urbane al tempo della pandemia

Romeo Farinella, Università di Ferrara, Italy

The urban problems that the pandemic poses are not new problems, they have been the object of urban planning reflection since the founding of the discipline with the industrial revolution. The policies of growth and development have thus become an opportunity for the accumulation of wealth for small groups, while the negative effects on the environment as well as social inequalities have not been (and do not constitute) a source of concern. The time has come to question the ethics of doing and governing architecture and urban planning, Covid-19, like the current environmental crisis, does not require generic answers but precise field choices. The considerations in this text address several topics. First of all, the relationship between pandemic, environmental crisis and inequality. This problematic interweaving has repercussions on the organisation of cities and processes of urban “neo-colonialism” that fail to recognise the complexity of the urban phenomenon in the world. Finally, the association between the pandemic, the environmental crisis and the city, which presupposes urban visions and shared projects, but appears increasingly directed towards marketing strategies, to the detriment of governance practices.

Keywords: environmental crisis, inequalities, project, southern urbanism

Accepted: December 2020 | Published Online: January 2021 DOI: 10.13128/contest-12289 | full text

Contesti Journal

Shifting Theory in the Midst of a Pandemic

Robert L. Thayer Jr.,University of California, USA

The global COVID-19 pandemic threatens much of the theory of human proxemics, and raises fundamental questions about human evolution and contemporary life. If we evolved in close contact with each other for thousands of years, does “social distance” contradict this fact? In today’s world, what should be local and what should be global? How much human suffering and death should be tolerated to “save the economy”? These and other questions are examined in this essay.

Accepted: June 2020 | Published Online: July 2020 DOI: 10.13128/contest-11936 | full text

Contesti Journal

Ricostruire la partecipazione civica nella nuova normalità. Alcuni indirizzi per una possibile rifondazione

Giovanni Allegretti, Centro de Estudos Sociais, Universidade de Coimbra, Portugal

Durante il periodo dell’emergenza COVID-19, la maggior parte dei processi partecipativi in corso in vari paesi è stata messa in pausa. Nel frattempo, varie reti che mettono in dialogo facilitatori, consulenti, funzionari pubblici e politici impegnati in percorsi partecipativi hanno cominciato ad interrogarsi sul “dopo”: su come muteranno le persone e quanto dovranno cambiare i percorsi partecipativi della “nuova normalità”. A partire dalle testimonianze raccolte dall’autore in varie reti internazionali, il testo cerca di proporre una sintesi di alcuni punti comuni emersi dei dibattiti di questi mesi e di alcune esperienze che hanno tentato di iniziare a ripensare i percorsi partecipativi di coinvolgimento degli abitanti nelle politiche pubbliche. L’autore identifica alcuni dei principali mutamenti paradigmatici che possono dare una direzione nuova per ripensare i percorsi partecipativi nel periodo della graduale riapertura delle attività bloccate dalla pandemia, verso il superamento di approcci di stampo assistenzialista, paternalista e “dall’alto in basso” come quelli che hanno caratterizzato le fasi più difficili dell’emergenza.

Accepted: June 2020 | Published Online: July 2020 DOI: 10.13128/contest-11935 | full text

Contesti Journal

Suolo e contesto. Riflessioni sul post-covid

Rosario Pavia, Già Ordinario di Urbanistica, Università di Pescara, Italy

The pandemic is part of a vast and inexorable process of changing the environment and its balance. We must go back to dealing with this process which has led to a profound change in the notion of context. The article reflects on the origins of this process and on its awareness.

Accepted: October 2020 | Published Online: November 2020 DOI: 10.13128/contest-12174 | full text

Contesti Journal

Il grande assente nelle iniziative per il rilancio dell’Italia: il territorio

Paolo Baldeschi, Università di Firenze, Italy

The document “Recovery plan for Italy 2020-2022”, known as Colao Plan has been presented in June 2020. Waiting the most programmatic decisions regarding how to use the Ricovery Found resources, the article presents an analysis of the chapters dedicated to the topics that most directly affect the territory and the city: 1) Infrastructures and the environment, the driving force for relaunch, 2) Green and hydrogeological instability, 3) Housing, highlighting the limits of approach and of strategy.

Accepted: October 2020 | Published Online: November 2020 DOI: 10.13128/contest-12023 | full text

Form@re Journal

Italian prison system facing coronavirus: between troubles and resilience

Carlotta Vignali, Università degli Studi di Pisa, Italy

This contribution is an analysis on the consequences of the coronavirus spread in the Italian prison system, highlighting concerns and potential prospects of improvements. Like other extremely vulnerable contexts, prisons are affected by the spread of Covid-19, resulting however weaker in providing effective strategies to ensure prevention, health and safety. Due to structural flaws, unhealthy conditions and endemic shortfalls, penitentiaries see a high risk of an outbreak of the illness. The prison crumbling and chronic overcrowded state make social distancing impossible. In addition to this, the coronavirus impact exacerbates pre-existing difficulties of the prison system. In such a dramatic scenario, and in spite of the inadequate government response in providing efficient resources against the virus diffusion, some detention facilities seem to be resilient in fighting back the epidemic, adopting strategies and solutions which could be considered a valuable starting point towards a better way of conceiving punishment.

Published: 18 November 2020 | DOI: 10.13128/form-8556| full text

Scienze del Territorio Journal

Dalla crisi pandemica il ritorno ai territori

Antonella Tarpino, Historian and essayist, Nuto Revelli Foundation, Italy

Anna Marson University Venice, Department of Architecture and Arts, Italy

Nel contesto di una pandemia che ha stravolto le vite di molte persone, comunità e famiglie, restringendo in breve tempo lo spazio teoricamente praticabile del mondo allo spazio obbligato della casa, sono state molte le ‘archistar’, in discontinuità con i loro  progetti,  a  invitare  repentinamente  e  con  una  certa  qual  leggerezza  a  lasciare  la  città  per  i  piccoli  borghi  e  le  aree  interne.  Rispetto  a  questo  coro  i  testi  di  que-sto numero off rono una serie di approfondimenti, basati su materiali documentali e interpretativi,  che  evidenziano  invece  la  necessità  di  ripensare  complessivamente  il  modello di produzione dello spazio urbano e rurale.

Accepted: 2020-12-10 | Published Online: 2020-12-10 | DOI: 10.13128/sdt-12369 | full text

Scienze del Territorio Journal

Sorveglianza globale e metropoli pandemica. Attualità e genealogia di un disastro

Ottavio Marzocca, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Department of Humanities, Bari, Italy

The SARS-COV2 pandemic has shown that entrusting global communications systems with public health protection can produce disastrous results. In fact, the strategies of planetary surveillance, promoted by the World Health Organization for the prevention of EIDs that have long been the greatest danger of pandemic infections, are oriented in this sense. These strategies are based, on the one hand, on the problematic willingness of nation-states to promptly communicate information on the risks of epidemics and, on the other hand, on the algorithmic processing of large masses of disparate data derived from web users behaviours. The growth of urban concentrations – the subject of anti-epidemic biopolitics since the beginnings of modernity and today recognized as a determining factor of the ecosystem alterations that cause pandemic dangers – in this scenario risks becoming a tendency to resign oneself to, waiting for the next contagion. The territorialist approach can offer alternative perspectives to this both by promoting and applying the idea of ​​ urban bioregion and by taking into account that there are already those who plan to transfer most of the ‘dangerous liaisons’ that take place in the postmodern metropolis online.

Accepted: 2020-12-04 | Published Online: 2020-12-04 | DOI: 10.13128/sdt-12288 | full text

Scienze del Territorio Journal

Se il pianeta è malato lo saremo anche noi: crisi climatica, ambientale e sanitaria

Luca Mercalli, Società Meteorologica Italiana and ISPRA, Italy

It is widely known that all environmental alterations have an interconnected role which, sooner or later, directly or indirectly affects the health of humanity. However, the fundamental inactivity of politics and economy in countering this drift makes things worse, with the growing risk of triggering brutal and irreversible changes in the Earth-system. Ironically, the global health emergency has shown that rapid and radical choices can generate immediate positive effects in environmental terms: think of the drastic reduction in climate-altering emissions caused by the lockdown. Thus, such forced response indicates, perhaps, the way to more reflective strategies able to teach us (again) to live in harmony with nature.

Accepted: 2020-10-17 | Published Online: 2020-10-18 | DOI: 10.13128/sdt-12137 | full text

Scienze del Territorio Journal

Mappe dei contagi e condizioni eco-territoriali

Sergio Malcevschi*, Riccardo Santolini, Gianmarco Paris, Paola Pluchino, Italy

The article presents the maps and data at the provincial level of COVID infections in Italy in the first phase of the epidemic (March-May 2020). The bio-geography of infections in Italy was very articulated, with a spatial imprint that was maintained in the months considered despite significant variations in the total number of infections within the period considered. In addition to a North-South macro-gradient, infra- and supra-regional territorial areas with specific characteristics have been produced. The situations less affected by the infections occurred in areas without significant metropolitan components, characterized by a more balanced relationship from an ecological and landscape point of view. Some implications for better management of future epidemic risks are discussed. The so-called ‘green deal’ development models, in addition to the new contents for economic productions, need to have greater awareness of the bio-physical risks associated with an inadequate government of the territory: it will be necessary that they concretely assign a relevant role to multi-scalars networks of ecosystems and landscapes and the resilience services they offer.

Accepted: 2020-12-03 | Published Online: 2020-12-04 | DOI: 10.13128/sdt-12290 | full text

Scienze del Territorio Journal

Piccoli paesi nell’ondata del virus. Resistenza, democrazia, comunità

Pietro Clemente, SIMBDEA, The Italian Society for Museum and Heritage Anthropology, Italy

As part of the reflections on how Covid-19 has acted in Italian disadvantaged non-urban areas we ask if the lockdown has enhanced – through comparisons with cities – the demand for a higher quality of life; we also try to understand what kind of new subjectivity can strenghten the scene of small villages engaged in this rebirth and which conflicts or growth process regarding new communitarian forms are developing. After a review of the new forms of contemporary community and the identification of the frequent element of conflict for the new undertakings of “Riabitare l’Italia”, we analyse evidence of quality of life in places with lower social density, but also extreme loneliness and heightened sense of abandonment due to the lack of post Covid strong investment policies for marginal areas. The final reflection takes note of the fact that the current debates tend to not see a connection between the social and economic aspects and the symbolic and ritualistic aspects of the social life in small villages, and that points to the need for a recomposition of different aspects of life in terms of analysis and project.

Accepted: 2020-12-03 | Published Online: 2020-12-05 | DOI: 10.13128/sdt-12331 | full text

Scienze del Territorio Journal

Epidemie e coscienza sociale nel lungo periodo

Lucia Carle, EHESS, Paris, France

Since antiquity, humanity has been facing epidemics, one of the great recurring fears in the society of the Ancient Régime. In the long run they have generated or accelerated new collective behaviours, as well as the repetition and perpetuation of ancient reactions and behaviours. The fundamental measures – distancing, isolation, hygiene – generated by the confrontation and coexistence with the disease, are the corpus of long-lasting collective behaviours, handed down and dusted off with each epidemic/pandemic resurgence. Long-term epidemics affect territories, contributing to the definition of their peculiarities. Once imported, they assume precise and different features peculiar to each area, creating short duration spatial and social boundaries. They leave marks in social collective consciousness, modifying during their incidence the related, circumscribed and enlarged horizons defined by anthropic components. Every pandemic crisis affects social collective consciousness. In populations there is always both a rejection of the disease, although evident, up to its denial, and the insistent desire to ‘behave as before’. This is one of the major issues political and health authorities face, today as in the past, fighting against the infection spread and attempting to overcome it. The epidemic accelerates ongoing or underlying processes, influencing collective evolutions and changes. In a long-term perspective, epidemics are ‘bottlenecks’ that have forced societies to concretely deal with the consequences of their fundamental deficiencies.

Accepted: 2020-12-04 | Published Online: 2020-12-06 | DOI: 10.13128/sdt-12332 | full text

Scienze del Territorio Journal

Ritorni al Sud nel tempo del Covid

Vito Teti, University of Calabria, Department of Humanities, Italy

Disasters are accelerators of historical and social processes already underway, and the Covid-19 pandemic is a health and social disaster of planetary scale and historical significance. Since the first days of this emergency there has been a return to birthplaces: from the North to the South of Italy, but also from the urban centres to the villages, from the coast to the inland, from the plain to the mountains. The numbers are still small to speak of a reversal of the trend compared to the decade-long depopulation of certain areas, but something is happening and requires us to reflect on the kind of rebirth that lies ahead for the villages, the margins, the suburbs.

Accepted: 2020-12-04 | Published Online: 2020-12-06 | DOI: 10.13128/sdt-12334 | full text

Scienze del Territorio Journal

Dal ciglio della rupe tarpea, resilienze nell’area milanese/lombarda

Giorgio Ferraresi*, Vittorio Pozzati, Vincenzo Vasciaveo, Polytechnic University of Milan, Department of Architecture and urban studies, Italy

This article tries to grasp the ‘essential meaning’ of the pandemic and its context to introduce an alternative outcome based on practices already living, here and now, among local actors. From the break of co-evolutionary process between nature and culture to territorial regeneration as a design rule; from the tragic dominance of death to the vision of desired worlds of life. Resilience as resistance and proposal. Multiple experiences are gathered here, focusing the theme of neo-rurality and the co-production/consumption relationship, also in its nascent and growing connection with the Food Policy of the Milan Municipality and with civil volunteering. Right in the heart of the pandemic, which does not destroy but sees these practices grow and strengthen towards the future. They concern: small/medium-sized businesses and their more complex solidarity networks; the new role of some cooperatives, ‘hubs’ at the very centre of local agricultural realities in extended interaction. Field experiences that reveal all their fertility in a dialogue among theory, cultures and social practices destined to change the current common sense.

Accepted: 2020-12-02 | Published Online: 2020-12-03 | DOI: 10.13128/sdt-12284 | full text

Scienze del Territorio Journal

Segnali di resilienza rispetto al Covid. I casi di Ostana e di Gandino

Sergio De La Pierre, Independent sociologist, Milan, Italy

How did two municipalities in mountain areas, different from each other but similar for having since several years many civic associations, react to Covid? We ask this to many privileged witnesses. Ostana is a small virtuous municipality in Piedmont Alps, famous for its successful re-population projects, which experienced directly no Covid case so far, but has been able to take advantage from pandemic designing a new local development scenario. It has namely set up a community cooperative with projects aimed at sociality, tourism, place promotion, culture, neo-agriculture. Gandino, a municipality located in the Bergamasco area most severely hit by Covid, has counted hundreds of dead. Here resistance and solidarity by most people has been extraordinary, bringing many population components to imagine a different future for the after crisis. Resilience signals that in both situations meet the criterion of multisectoral local development, which is a fundamental key to community resilience.

Accepted: 2020-12-02 | Published Online: 2020-12-03 | DOI: 10.13128/sdt-12335 | full text

Scienze del Territorio Journal

Emergenze di futuro: verso nuovi modi di abitare la terra. Il ripopolamento degli stazzi nei territori della Gallura

Lidia Decandia, University of Sassari, Department of Architecture, design and urban planning, Italy

The essay is inspired by studies on the late-ancient period. A period also strongly affected by a cycle of pandemics, to whose emergence seems to have significantly contributed the structure of the urbanization model of the Roman city-world. Historians who analyzed in such key this era, in many respects similar to ours, in paying attention to the minute signs of change, have revealed how this period was not only a moment of decline but also a period of extraordinary cultural and spiritual vitality from which the medieval civilization originated. Using these same lenses, attentive to clues and minimal stories, the essay tries to look at some repopulation phenomena underway for some years in the countryside of Gallura, a historical region located in the north-east of Sardinia, today accelerated by the appearance of Covid pandemic. This through the analysis of some of the many interviews carried out during a field research, highlighting how in the folds of this territory a swarm of new inhabitants, often coming from the continental metropolises, are trying, in forms still to be understood and interpreted, to build new ways of inhabiting the earth aimed, as well as at reopening new vital relationships with nature, at building other ways of being together.

Accepted: 2020-12-05 | Published Online: 2020-12-06 | DOI: 10.13128/sdt-12336 | full text

Scienze del Territorio Journal

Il confinamento domiciliare nel post-sisma dell’Appennino centrale

Claudia Della Valle, Enrico Mariani, “Carlo Bo” University of Urbino, Department of Communication sciences, humanities and international studies, Italy

The recent Coronavirus pandemic that has affected territories all over the world and, in particular, the following Italian regulatory provisions, have stimulated a broad interdisciplinary reflection on the theme of housing. This contribution analyses the relationship between the prolonged confinement and housing practices within two post-disaster emergency housing areas, assigned for those who lost their homes in the 2016-2017 central Apennine earthquake. Through a research design that contemplates the comparison of the most different study cases, and through the use of qualitative methods, in particular the ethnographic ones, some aspects are highlighted: on the one hand, some critical issues related to post-earthquake temporary living, which, during the period of home confinement, have contributed to exacerbating vulnerabilities; on the other, the emergence of new and unprecedented social and housing configurations, which recall resilient processes already activated following the disaster.

Accepted: 2020-12-05 | Published Online: 2020-12-06 | DOI: 10.13128/sdt-12338 | full text

Scienze del Territorio Journal

Il lavoro del virus e il virus del lavoro nelle mappe di territorio

Marco Revelli, University of Eastern Piedmont, Department of Law, Italy

The territorial analysis of the spread of Covid-19, detailed at the municipality and district level, is a necessary tool for understanding the morphology of the contagion and fighting it. It reveals its ‘classist’ character, which has affected the most poorer urban areas, but also as at the challenge of the virus the ‘network capitalism’ has revealed its structural ‘frailty’. Almost all long networks have thus crashed, as the borders closed, while the district economy has seen its virtue – the relationship of proximity, relational intensity, pushed interaction – transformed into vice and deadly threat: the ‘red’ areas, in which contagion and lethality are concentrated, correspond almost palmarily with those where productive and commercial interactivity was more fibrillating. The virus did not walk only on the silk road, in Italy it also retraced the provincial networks of production interchange, the salmon ascent along the valleys that had characterized the transition to post-Fordism, saw the clusters of warehouses become hubs of the contagion (the story of Bergamo is exemplary). The intertwining between the fibrillating intensity of doing and the frailty of the productive structure was lethal for areas such as the central Padania: between the fever of doing and the fever of the virus there is a tragic interaction where it is not the ‘Rhenish capitalism’ that dominates but the very intense and very frail Italian one.

Accepted: 2020-12-04 | Published Online: 2020-12-05 | DOI: 10.13128/sdt-12323 | full text

Scienze del Territorio Journal

Il territorio come costruzione sociale al tempo del Covid

Aldo Bonomi, AASTER, Milan, Italy

To deal about territory as a social construction in Covid times we need to start again from community, albeit eradicated from physical proximity. The social dimension of the community does not pertain only to experts and prefects. The word ‘care’, beyond sanitary domain, urges a job that starts from feelings, anthropologies, operating on the thousand uncertainties that characterize our society rich in means and poor in collective ends. Care as a path and opportunity to rethink our being a community of destiny, starting from territories of the margin dense of practices and experiences between environmental sustainability and social inclusion, to take to the centre for more habitable cities. To this end, it is necessary that social innovation tries to escape from the technological allure or ritualism of technical design focused upon innovation of means, promoting instead innovation of social ends and production of collective meaning. We need to consider social innovation practices not only as good news, but also as a collective intellect of new intermediate bodies, that is, filaments of new institutionality. There can be no green economy without green society, a collective intellect rooted into territories to create and restore social cohesion. In terms of governance, it would seem logical to weave regional columns to dialogue with the state pediment that holds and coordinates everything, and then go to Europe and the world to come… given the state of debate, an utopia.

Accepted: 2020-12-04 | Published Online: 2020-12-05 | DOI: 10.13128/sdt-12324 | full text

Scienze del Territorio Journal

I rischi della specializzazione mono-funzionale turistica dei sistemi montani rive-lati dal Covid-19

Alberto Di Gioia*, Giuseppe Dematteis, Polytechnic University of Turin, Interuniversity Department of Regional and Urban Studies and Planning, Italy

This research paper aims to verify the thesis according to which the local mono-functional economies such as those based on winter mass tourism are not sustainable, nor advantageous from an economic and social point of view. The analysis is based on the surveys conducted by Italian National Institute of Statistics (Istat) in the spring 2020 lockdown period, relating to the loss of revenue in the Italian municipalities. In the Piedmont and Valle d’Aosta these losses are related to the tourist specialization (based on the number of tourists) and to the local endowment of services. In the mountain area of these two regions the average loss of service companies in the 46 tourist specialized municipalities was four times more than the average of all 536 mountain municipalities.

Accepted: 2020-12-04 | Published Online: 2020-12-05 | DOI: 10.13128/sdt-12325 | full text

Scienze del Territorio Journal

Pensare un’economia trasformativa per comunità sostenibili e solidali

Riccardo Troisi, ReOrient ONG, Italy

Pandemic has underlined as never before the limits of the prevailing economic model, and the evidence about the fact that our life styles are increasingly assaulted by multiple (financial, economic, ecologic and about social justice) lasting and overlapping crisis. The ‘solidarity society’ is showing, along this crisis, an important response capacity, practising multiple generative experiences of new economy whose common frame is a pact of care for its own living space, fair with both human community and natural environment. The serious consequences of the ongoing pandemic, the end of which is difficult to predict, will bring just a return to the previous situation or an activation of the large and diffuse social innovation potentialities? So far, we have no clear signal towards one or the other. In any case, we can develop alternative action and strategies based on potentialities. Starting from the local level there is the possibility to experiment not just residual or testimonial projects but alternative models of production, distribution, consumption and savings bringing back the concept of economy to its primary dimension, the one to satisfy fundament needs of the community. If we do not reclaim this dimension, we will not be able to answer the issues of equity and justice, both social and environmental, which are everyday becoming more urgent and essential at the global level.

Accepted: 2020-12-04 | Published Online: 2020-12-05 | DOI: 10.13128/sdt-12329 | full text

Scienze del Territorio Journal

Verso le comunità energetiche

Monica Bolognesi, Alberto Magnaghi, University of Florence, Florence, Italy

Moving from the critique of the deterritorialisation process that led to the concentration of services and activities in metropolitan areas and the consequent desertification of peripheral and marginal territories, the paper reflects on the implications of the traditional centralized model of energy production and on its criticalities amplified by the ongoing pandemic, then analyzing the opportunities of an energy transition characterized by return to territory. The creation of energy communities represents an opportunity to overcome the social acceptance paradigm and the traditional sectoral approach to experiment with a model of territorial energy patrimonialisation, through the integration of specific locally defined energy mixes, calibrated on the resources’ availability and reproducibility and respectful of the bioregion assets. Dynamic energy communities in which the inhabitants participate, interpret, co-plan, are involved in the identification of local resources and take an active role as protagonists in the definition and management of the transition process of their territories towards a self-sustainability prospect.

Accepted: 2020-12-04 | Published Online: 2020-12-05 | DOI: 10.13128/sdt-12330 | full text

Scienze del Territorio Journal

Il virus architetto

Aimaro Isola, Isolarchitetti, Turin, Italy

Once confined Art and Architecture, which for a long time did guide us, in the autonomous spaces of aesthetics, critique, the market, disputes among connoisseurs, the advent of the virus seems now to induce unpredictable changes even in thinking new places for living. But a quick look at the contemporary world astride the virus, flying like the Baron of Münchhausen on a cannonball, reveals that the virus has already been here, that crises, catastrophes, plagues and wars have always oriented the production of human landscape; and presses us on reconnecting the broken ‘threads’ of an interweaved design, on being not only subjects ‘in’ the nature but, ‘with’ the nature, inhabitants of a common atmosphere, of a single landscape.

Accepted: 2020-10-04 | Published Online: 2020-10-07 | DOI: 10.13128/sdt-12097 | full text

Scienze del Territorio Journal

Il futuro è già qui

Guido Viale, Independent economist and author

Despite the authoritative warnings (from IPCC to COP 21, from Pope Francis to Greta Thunberg) climate crisis is reaching irreversibility. Besides essential mitigation measures (stopping as soon as possible extraction and use of fossils, useless and harmful Major Projects, relocations to save on environmental and labour costs, and analogous) adaptation measures must be put in place as soon as possible to face life conditions becoming more and more difficult. International institutions and governments have not been up to the task, therefore local communities must lead the turn, recreating inside themselves and in their mutual relations conditions that promote a wider autonomy both in managing their own territories and in the production field through the reterritorialisation of many activities now spread throughout the planet. Efficiency and energy generation from local and differentiated renewable sources; ecological, proximity and multifunctional agriculture and farming for a healthy and sustainable diet; ecodesign finalized to zero waste; drastic reduction of mobility based on private motorization and care of hydrogeological systems. These are the core intervention fields for the unavoidable ecological conversion: a process requiring a strong popular participation, but also an inevitable conflict with the established powers.

Accepted: 2020-12-05 | Published Online: 2020-12-07 | DOI: 10.13128/sdt-12342 | full text

Scienze del Territorio Journal

I territori fragili di fronte al Covid

Alessandro Balducci, Polytechnic University of Milan, Department of Architecture and urban studies, Italy

Moving from the convergence between the concept of “terrestrial” elaborated by Bruno Latour and the positions of Italian territorialism, the paper considers what the impact of Covid on fragile territories in Italy has been, but also what opportunities are opening up from the crisis that the pandemic has produced. Three areas are considered: urban peripheries, territories in between, inland, mountainous and hilly areas in contraction. The pandemic has hit each of these areas particularly hard. The lesson we can learn, however, is that to avoid further catastrophes, it is exactly from these places that we must start to build a resilient, habitable and equitable territory.

Accepted: 2020-12-06 | Published Online: 2020-12-08 | DOI: 10.13128/sdt-12352 | full text

Scienze del Territorio Journal

Politiche urbane e pratiche solidali. Il panorama internazionale e un caso di studio

Ilaria Agostini*, Maria Rita Gisotti, Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, Department of Cultural heritage, Italy

The crisis triggered by Covid-19 has accelerated a process of rethinking of contemporary living forms, already underway for some time, started in recent years especially by the fight against climate change and by the movements for the ‘right to the city’. This contribution proposes a reflection on two levels: that of medium and long-term international urban policies, and that of solidarity practices experimented in the city of Florence, taken as a case study. The article therefore offers a critical summary of some international policy documents dedicated to the response of cities to Covid-19. In the part dedicated to the case study, it describes the emergence of self-organized solidarity networks created in response to the immediate needs of the inhabitants, excluded from institutional emergency measures. In conclusion, it is highlighted how the indications of European policies point towards a more inclusive, sustainable and digital city and towards a different model of tourist use. At the same time, it can be observed that convincing hypotheses for a territorial restart of strong political value come from the realities active in solidarity mutualism. At the basis of these visions lie, in our opinion, a renewed centrality of public policies and collective space, an ability for interinstitutional and cooperative dialogue with the various social components, an attention to the bioregional scale for an effective ecological transition.

Accepted: 2020-11-28 | Published Online: 2020-11-29 | DOI: 10.13128/sdt-12271 | full text

Scienze del Territorio Journal

Housing collaborativo e prospettive creative: scenari per la città a venire

Lorenza Perini

University of Padua, Department of Political science, law and international studies, Italy

The new and uncertain times into which the Covid pandemic has thrown us make it clear that we need to rethink the way we live in the city, in our neighborhood, and even in the interior spaces of our homes. How this change should take place is not entirely clear, nor should we expect a standard recipe. Certainly, the direction to follow is that of an increasing sustainability – in all the meanings that this word can assume – environmental, economic, social sustainability. Not necessarily this direction points straight out of the city and into the countryside villages, as many of the current speeches seem to support. In this paper, we want to talk about different and creative ideas for a sustainable and socialized living, in the direction of a sharing of services and functions, using also an historical perspective for setting up scenarios and contexts of possible practices.

Accepted: 2020-12-07 | Published Online: 2020-12-08 | DOI: 10.13128/sdt-12354 | full text

Scienze del Territorio Journal

Un Faro per il patrimonio culturale nel post-Covid-19

Giuliano Volpe

“Aldo Moro” University of Bari, Department of Humanities, Italy

The current epidemiological situation requires an acceleration of the reform process, based on the rethinking of the forms of protection and public enjoyment of cultural heritage, by fostering the development of widespread ‘social protection’ practices, the active participation of citizens, and bottom-up management systems. In this respect, guide-lines are provided by the Faro Convention as well as by the Italian Constitution and case studies from various Italian regions will be presented.

Accepted: 2020-12-07 | Published Online: 2020-12-09 | DOI: 10.13128/sdt-12355 | full text

Ri-Vista Journal 

Cities after COVID-19: how trees and green infrastructures can help shaping a sustainable future

Francesco Ferrini, Antonella Gori

University of Florence, Department of Agriculture, Food, Environment and Forestry

There is no doubt that metropolitan areas are, and will increasingly be, the engines of economic growth and fertile grounds for the development of technology, creativity and innovation and this will need a shift in the future cities planning and management especially regarding the increase in green areas. This must be done through a regeneration process that can only refer to the 17 objectives of sustainable development (UN, 2019) that are frequently neglected in regeneration programs and this is likely to result in unsustainable urban renewal in many cities. Three main challenges for sustainable urban regeneration can be identified: – environmental (climate change, carbon emissions and use of resources), – social (inequality, cohesion and health), – institutional (governance). We need to promote the start of a real “green revolution”, a revolution that, through the increase in plant cover, will make our cities a better place, doing it with an inclusive approach. The “green” city cannot therefore remain only a set of abstract, portable, stereotyped ideas because it must be the place that will constitute the territory of activity of our life.

Accepted: 2020-05 | Published Online: 2020-05-13 | DOI: 10.13128/rv-8553 | full text

Ri-Vista Journal 

Segregazione. Roma ai tempi della pandemia

Franco Zagari, Architettura e paesaggio, Rome, Italy

At the beginning of the first restrictions imposed by coronavirus, on March 13th Franco Zagari published on Facebook a first reflection on the psychophysical condition modified by the cloister, especially on the skin and through the senses. Almost like in a fantasy story, the place of the forced domicile turns into a sort of submarine, well isolated but where a singular adaptability between container and guests is established: the house capable of adapting to people’s breath, but at the same time of opening to the breath of a city’s that appears unknown, even if too familiar.

Asked to accept these reflections in this extraordinary issue of RI-VISTA, and to extend this thinking towards the public space, Zagari reverses and radicalises the reasoning. As the nearly inventor of this phrase, he seems to reject it to project his gaze beyond, as usual, to compose a horizon of future objects of the project, in which he brings to synthesis many extremely current and sensitive themes, to redesign a country that is reborn with exante care, done through all the forms of the project. (Fabio Di Carlo).

Accepted: 2020-05 | Published Online: 2020-05-13 | DOI: 10.13128/rv-8474 | full text

Ri-Vista Journal

Altri, altrove, altrimenti

Annalisa Metta, Università Roma Tre, Dipartimento di Architettura, Rome, Italy

Once the most intense and dramatic phase of the Coronavirus infection is over, observing some of its effects on urban open spaces could be useful for the progress of design, even beyond the emergency. Above all, two central questions arise. The first: once the absence of humans from public space has revealed the presence of other living beings, both plants and animals, it may now be possible and even desirable to establish renewed conditions of coexistence with them, according with the most advanced positions of contemporary thought on the need to overcome the oppositional dualism between nature and nurture, nature and the city. The second question is about where and how the attractive, central and socially cohesive spaces of the near future will be, once that, having been deprived of traditional public spaces, we have experienced the silent quality of many areas of urban amnesia, outside the orthodoxy of the usual codes of behavior and therefore willing to accept inventive uses, practices, and rituals.

Accepted: 2020-07 | Published Online: 2020-07-23 | DOI: 10.13128/rv-9026 | full text

Ri-Vista Journal

Il paesaggio del turismo oltre il COVID-19: prospettive per una Firenze resiliente

Elena Tarsi1, Massimo Carta2

1 Centro de Estudos Sociais, Universidade de Coimbra, Portugal 2 DIDA, Università di Firenze, Italy

Le misure anti-contagio legate all’emergenza sanitaria da COVID-19 decise da molti governi nazionali, hanno avuto un impatto devastante sull’industria del turismo, mettendo in luce con estrema chiarezza la fragilità di un sistema che, pur producendo enormi profitti, trasforma profondamente i luoghi interessati, la percezione che ne hanno abitanti e visitatori e la loro capacità di resilienza. Il contributo riflette sul caso di Firenze e sulla progressiva specializzazione turistica del suo centro storico, presentando un bilancio delle politiche adottate fino ad oggi e avanzando alcune prospettive per una rinnovata strategia che vada oltre il post-COVID-19. L’inedito paesaggio di un centro deserto, sperimentato alla fine del lockdown, è lo specchio di un vuoto di senso, di una cesura nella relazione tra tessuti urbani e corpo sociale della città, determinatosi negli anni della specializzazione verso un turismo di massa. La strategia proposta è quella di investire in un sistema più resiliente che abbia nella rinnovata residenzialità un fattore di riequilibrio e nella rinforzata relazione tra città metropolitana e centro storico una leva di azione per una nuova mixité funzionale, economica e sociale.

Accepted: 2020-11 | Published Online: 2020-11-9 | DOI: 10.13128/rv-9742 | full text